Greece is a country with a particularly rich and ancient history.
The first settlements date back to the Palaeolithic era (11.000-3000 BC), while in the second millennium BC Greece gave birth to the powerful Minoan (2600-1500 BC), Mycenaean (1500-1150 BC) and the Cycladic civilizations.
With the evolution of powerful city-states, especially Athens and Sparta, between 800 and 500 BC, started The Classical Period of Greece History which was the Golden Age of the Grecian civilization, famous all over the world.
Under the leadership of Pericles, Athens ushered the era of its prosperity in all spheres: an era when Pericles himself commissioned the Parthenon, Democritus taught the concept of democracy, Sophocles wrote Oedipus Rex, and Socrates taught the intricacies of logic.
Later, the Greek history became a succession of various invasions and dominations: Alexander's conquest of the city-states was followed by the Roman invasions that began in 205 BC. In 330 AD Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople, founding the Eastern Roman Empire which was renamed later Byzantine Empire.
It was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. The Ottoman rule lasted for 400 years and was a dark period for the inhabitants of the ex-Byzantine Empire. Wanting to finally win their freedom, people of the Greece territory started to organise themselves and various revolts exploded against the Turkish oppressor.
The Independence War started from the Peloponnese in 1821 and ended on March 1831, with the establishment of the new and independent Greek State. A monarchy was established a few years after that by the Great Powers. At first it comprised only a tiny fraction of the country.
In 1864, the Ionian islands were added to Greece; in 1881 parts of Epirus and Thessaly. Crete, the islands of the Eastern Aegean and Macedonia were added in 1913 and Western Thrace in 1919. After World War II, in 1947, the Dodecanese islands became also part of Greece.
Today, Greece is a member of UN, IMF, CSCE and other major World and European Institutions such as the NATO (since 1952), OECD, WEU, Council of Europe and European Union which she joined in 1981. This brief recapitulation of the Greek history gives just a taste of its complexity and of the sufferings of its population who often had to fight for its freedom.
MORE ABOUT GREECE:
Greek climate is tipically mediterranean or subtropical, with plenty of sunshine, mild temperatures and a limited amount of rainfall.
Greece has a culinary tradition of more than 2500 years.
Greece is a country with a particularly rich and ancient history